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General description of generator set 2020-09-02 11:31:00
1 General description of the generator and its identification The design of this generator set is a complete combination and provides superior and reliable performance. This article gives a brief description of the main parts of the generator. Each generator has a nameplate. Basically nailed to the peripherals of the alternator. The information on the nameplate is used to identify the generator and its operating characteristics. These data should include the model, body number, output voltage, phase sequence and frequency, the output power is expressed in KVA or KW, and the specified power. For reference, these materials will be repeated in the technical data sheet attached to this manual. The model and serial numbers are unique and will not be repeated. These numbers must be provided when purchasing accessories and warranty services. 2 diesel engine Diesel generator is the source of power for the generator set. It is specially designed and manufactured for this generator set with safe and reliable performance. Diesel engines belong to the 4-stroke or 2-stroke compression ignition type for heavy industry and are matched to provide stable power supply. The package includes a cylindrical air filter, a turbocharger on some diesel engine models, and a mechanical or electronic governor to closely control the speed of the diesel engine. 3 engine power system The power system of the engine is a 12 or 24 volt negative grounded DC corona system according to the model. It includes a starter motor, battery and battery rack. In some large generators, this project may be placed on the floor near the generator. Battery charger. Most generators are proposed to provide one or two lead-acid batteries, which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 10 of this manual. This machine can also be used with other types of batteries under customer requirements. 4 cooling system The engine cooling system includes a radiating water tank, an axial fan and a thermostat. The alternator has a separate fan to cool its components. Note that the airflow passes through the alternator first. Then it passes through the engine and finally through the radiator water tank. 5 Alternator The output power is generated by a protective cover dripping to protect the peripherals, a brushless automatic, self-regulated alternator, and a control box installed on top of it. 6 Fuel tank and chassis Both the engine and the alternator are mounted on a heavy steel chassis. Except for the largest units, under normal circumstances there is a fuel that can hold full load and start up for 8 hours. If there is no fuel tank on the bottom frame, a separate fuel tank must be provided. 7 shock absorber The generator is equipped with shock absorbers, which are specially designed to reduce the transmission of vibration to the foundation when the generator starts. These shock absorbers are installed between the engine/alternator feet and the chassis. However, in larger generators, the engine/alternator is fixed on the base frame, while the shock absorber is provided to the customer and installed between the base frame and the foundation. 8Muffler and exhaust system The exhaust muffler is randomly attached to be installed. This muffler and exhaust system can reduce noise and directly discharge exhaust gas outdoors. 9 control system (identification) There are several control systems and control panels, one of which is installed on each machine to control operation and output, and to protect the unit from damaging the machine due to incorrect operation. Chapter 9 of this manual provides detailed information and signs to help distinguish different control systems. 10 Power air switch In order to protect the alternator, a power switch suitable for related models and related power output is installed in an independent switch box. In some cases, the switch may be installed together with the automatic transfer conveying system or the control panel.
Handling/installation/shockproof 2020-09-02 11:31:00
1 Transport the generator The base of the generator is specially designed for easy handling. Improper handling will seriously damage the components of the generator. Use a forklift to lift the generator carefully or push or pull carefully on the chassis. If you push, do not use the fork to push the rack directly. Be sure to place a forest head between the fork and the rack to prevent damage to the rack and disperse weight. If the generator is to be transported frequently, an "oil-filled slide rail" can be installed on the rack, and the slide rail will provide forklift grooves and eyes for hanging. Smaller models already have grooves on the underframe for forklifts to lift. Warning ★ ! Never lift the generator set with the hoisting ring of the engine or alternator. ! Check whether the suspension equipment and supporting hands are in good condition, and whether the load capacity of the suspension equipment is appropriate. ! When the machine is hoisted, no one should come near. If you plan to hoist the generator, you should install a single-point suspension device, which is already available for standard machines with a canopy. If the generator is hoisted for installation, the protruding points on the bottom frame are for hoisting. After the connection is made, check whether it is firmly hung, whether there are cracks in the weld, whether the screws are tightened, etc. The cross bar is needed to protect the machine from bumping. The hoisting point should be in the center of gravity (closer to the generator) instead of the center of the whole machine, so that it can be hoisted vertically. Once the machine is off the ground, a guide cable should be used to prevent the rope from kinking or the machine from swinging. Do not lift when the wind is strong. Place the machine in a flat place that can bear the weight of the generator. This lifting method can only be used for one-time lifting for installation. If lifting is often required, a single-point suspension device should be installed. If the generator is hoisted by a helicopter, the hoisting ring must be used. 2 Installation location Choosing a good place to install the generator is the most important of all steps in the installation. The following factors are very important for site selection. ●Enough ventilation. ●It can protect parts from rain, snow, hail, flood, direct sunlight, freezing temperature or overheating. ●Do not expose the machine to polluted air, such as grinding dust, metal dust, fiber chips, smoke, oil fume, vaporized gas, engine smoke or other pollution. ●The generator should be installed in a place that will not be overwhelmed by falling trees, electric poles, or overwhelmed by objects falling from vehicles or cranes. ●There must be space around the generator, one for cooling, and the other for easy maintenance, at least 1 meter around and no other objects 2 meters above it. ●There must be a passage that allows the whole machine to pass to the installation room. The air inlet and outlet pipes should be easy to load and unload in order to be used as a port. ●Restrict non-management personnel from entering the computer room. If the generator must be installed outside the building, it needs to be equipped with an all-weather housing or container type. It is very useful for such enclosure devices as generators that need to be temporarily installed inside or outside the building. 3 Foundation / shock absorber The whole generator set is installed with a rigid base frame to accurately install the alternator and engine. Therefore, when installing the generator, it only needs to be fixed on a good foundation with screws. 3.1 Basics: The best foundation is to build a reinforced concrete to install the generator. The foundation provides a rigid support for the generator, which can prevent oscillation and vibration. The standard cement block thickness is 150mm-200mm (6-8 inches), and the area cannot be smaller than the generator set chassis. The ground or floor under the base plate should be arranged in advance to support the weight of the base plate plus the generator. (If the generator is to be installed above the ground floor, the structure of the building must be able to withstand the weight of the generator, as well as reserve fuel and accessories, etc.) The building must comply with local building regulations. If the floor is often wet, such as The foundation of the boiler room must be higher than the floor, so as to provide a place for the generator, and to facilitate the wiring, repair and maintenance of workers, and to minimize the corrosion of the metal of the chassis. 3.2 Shock absorption: In order to minimize the transmission of vibration from the generator to the building, the generator is equipped with shock absorbers, which are installed between the engine/alternator feet and the chassis. This allows the bottom frame to be directly bolted to the foundation. As for the larger generators, the engine/alternator is rigidly fixed
Gas/cooling/smoke 2020-09-02 11:31:00
1 Air combustible gas input for engine combustion The air supplied to the engine for combustion must be clean and as low as possible. Under normal circumstances, it is filtered and used around the generator through an air filter installed on the engine. However, sometimes the air near the generator is not suitable for use due to dust, heat, etc., so it must be drawn from the clean air outside the building, or when it is drawn from another room, do not remove the air filter and install it in From a distance, it is easy to get dirt into the engine by doing this. If you want to do this, you need to use an air input device approved by the factory, otherwise it will have an adverse effect on the operation of the generator. 2 Cooling and ventilation The engine, alternator and exhaust pipe all radiate heat, and the temperature rise to a certain extent will affect the efficiency of the generator. Therefore, measures must be taken to keep the engine and alternator cool. The correct air flow route is the air from the rear part of the engine, through the radiator, and then out of the outdoor through a removable exhaust pipe. If there is no exhaust pipe to exhaust the hot air outdoors, the fan will draw the hot air around, and the hot air will short-circuit back to the radiator, reducing the cooling effect. The air inlet and outlet must be large enough to allow air to enter and exit freely, and the vent is at least 1.5 times the area of ​​the radiator core. The air inlets and outlets should have shutters for protection from bad weather. These boards can be fixed, but it is best to be movable when the day is cold, so that when the machine is not turned on, the windows can be closed, which can keep the room warm and help Engine and load. For a generator that starts automatically, its shutters must also be automatically opened and closed, and it should be set to open automatically after the machine is turned on. Do not rely on radiators or heat exchange cooling systems, the heat generated by the generator still needs to be discharged outside. 3 Exhaust smoke The purpose of the engine's smoke exhaust system is to discharge smoke or odors that can cause harm to the human body to a certain height and reduce noise. A suitable muffler compatible with the exhaust pipe is used to reduce noise. It can be installed outdoors or outdoors. Warning ★ ! All generators installed indoors must use non-leakable exhaust pipes to exhaust the exhaust gas outside. The installation of the exhaust pipes must comply with relevant specifications, standards and other requirements. ! Ensure that the hot exhaust muffler and exhaust pipe are kept away from flammable materials. ! Ensure that the smoke emitted does not become a public hazard. When designing a smoke exhaust system, the most basic consideration is that the back pressure cannot exceed the allowable range, because excessive back pressure will greatly reduce the efficiency and durability of the engine, and seriously increase fuel consumption. In order to reduce the back pressure, the exhaust pipe should be designed as short as possible. If necessary, the curve must be at least 1.5 times the inner diameter of the pipe. Designs over 3m must be approved by the manufacturer. Other emission system design standards are as follows: ● Add a smoke exhaust hose to the connection between the engine exhaust outlet and the exhaust pipe. Its function is to reduce the transmission of vibration generated by the engine to the exhaust gas and the building, and allow the exhaust pipe to expand due to heat and a slight angle deviation during installation. ● Make sure that when installing the muffler and pipe, do not break or leak due to tension. ● The original parts of the exhaust system installed indoors should be insulated to reduce heat dissipation and noise. Pipes and silencers, whether installed indoors or outdoors, should be kept away from combustible substances. ● Any long horizontal or vertical exhaust pipes should be installed inclined downwards with a drain valve. The drain valve should be at the lowest point to prevent water from flowing into the engine and muffler. ● When the pipe passes through the wall, there should be sleeves to absorb shocks, and keep flammable materials away from these heating pipes, and there should be expansion pipes for the pipes to expand or contract longitudinally when heated. ● If the cut is horizontal, the end of the smoke exhaust pipe that extends outside the room should be cut to 60 degrees. If it is vertical, install a rain cap to prevent rain and snow from entering the smoke exhaust system. ● The exhaust pipe cannot be connected to another power generation exhaust pipe or other smoke pipes such as the smoke pipe of a stove or a boiler.
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